Out of Crisis

Out of Crisis: A Comprehensive Chapter Wise Summary

Introduction to Out of Crisis

In the modern world of business, where organizations constantly face challenges and strive for success, the book “Out of Crisis” by W. Edwards Deming serves as a guiding light. Published in 1982, this timeless masterpiece has become a cornerstone for managers and leaders seeking to transform their organizations and overcome the crisis plaguing them.

Deming, a renowned statistician and management expert, opens our eyes to the pervasive crisis caused by poor management practices. He calls for a paradigm shift, urging leaders to move away from blaming individuals and instead focus on understanding and improving the systems within their organizations. With his systematic and data-oriented approach, Deming provides a comprehensive framework for achieving quality improvement, customer satisfaction, and long-term success.

Through his famous 14 Points for Management and the System of Profound Knowledge, Deming reveals the factors that contribute to the crisis and offers practical strategies for transformation. He emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking, understanding variation, and nurturing a culture of continuous improvement and employee involvement. Deming’s insights and principles go beyond simply addressing the symptoms of the crisis; they target the root causes and pave the way for sustainable change.

So, join us as we dive deep into the chapters of “Out of Crisis” and explore Deming’s profound wisdom. Whether you are a seasoned manager looking to revitalize your organization or an aspiring leader seeking to enhance your knowledge, this book summary will equip you with the essential principles and strategies needed to conquer the crisis and create a thriving business. Let us embark on this journey together and embrace the transformative power of Deming’s teachings.

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Out of Crisis: Chapter Wise Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Crisis

In this chapter, Deming introduces the concept of the crisis that organizations face due to poor management practices. He highlights the need for a new approach to management to overcome this crisis. Deming advocates for a shift in mindset from blaming individuals to understanding the system in which they work.

Deming begins by stating, “The prevailing style of management must undergo transformation. A system cannot understand itself. The transformation requires a view from outside.” He argues that organizations cannot improve by simply continuing with their existing management practices. Instead, they need to adopt a new perspective, one that focuses on understanding and improving the system as a whole.

To illustrate the consequences of poor management, Deming shares an example from his experience. He mentions a company that produced low-quality products due to faulty machinery. Rather than addressing the root cause of the problem, management blamed the workers and attempted to motivate them through slogans and exhortations. Deming contends that blaming individuals and disregarding the system only perpetuates the crisis.

Deming highlights the importance of understanding the difference between defects caused by workers and those caused by the system. He writes, “Repairing defects beyond the fault of the worker merely deepens the trouble. Management response should be managerial: analysis of the system with the aim of making forever impossible the recurrence of that kind of trouble.” This excerpt emphasizes the need for a systematic approach to problem-solving, rather than placing blame on individuals.

Furthermore, Deming argues that management must recognize the interdependencies within the system. He states, “The participants cannot be optimized independently of the system. A system composed of components each optimized separately will not perform overall with maximum efficiency.” This emphasizes the importance of considering the entire system and optimizing it as a whole, rather than focusing solely on individual components or departments.

To conclude the chapter, Deming calls for a cooperative and long-term relationship between management and employees. He states, “Management cannot do the work. (…) It is on the shoulders of management to improve the relationship between workers and their jobs.” Deming believes that a healthy relationship between management and employees is essential for improving performance and achieving quality outcomes.

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Chapter 2: The Principles of Transformation

Deming presents his famous 14 Points for Management. These principles aim to guide organizations towards quality improvement and customer satisfaction. Deming emphasizes the importance of a cooperative and long-term relationship between management and employees, focusing on continuous improvement and the elimination of fear.

Out of Crisis Summary
Out of Crisis Summary

1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service: Deming emphasizes the importance of a long-term vision and commitment to quality. He states, “Without constancy of purpose, there is no constancy of effort“. For example, a company that wants to improve its customer service should align all its efforts, training, and policies towards consistently delivering exceptional service.

2. Adopt the new philosophy: Deming urges organizations to shift from blaming individuals to understanding the system in which they work. He suggests, “We are being ruined by the best efforts of people trying to do the best they can”. An example of adopting this philosophy is when a manufacturing company identifies that defects in their products are not solely the fault of individual workers but may be caused by flaws in the production process.

3. Cease dependence on inspection: Deming highlights the need to focus on preventing defects rather than relying on extensive inspection after the fact. He asserts, “Quality is made in the boardroom, not on the shop floor or in the laboratory”. An example of ceasing dependence on inspection is when a software development team implements rigorous testing and quality assurance processes throughout the entire development lifecycle to minimize errors.

4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of the price tag alone: Deming stresses the importance of considering factors beyond cost when making business decisions. He states, “The price tag is a poor criterion for buying”. An example of ending the practice of awarding business based solely on price is when a company evaluates potential suppliers based on quality, reliability, and long-term value rather than solely focusing on price.

5. Improve constantly and forever every process: Deming emphasizes the need for continuous improvement in all aspects of the organization. He explains, “Improvement of quality, and improvement of productivity are two sides of the same coin“. An example of constantly improving processes is when a hospital implements regular training programs and feedback mechanisms to enhance patient care and reduce errors.

6. Institute training on the job: Deming emphasizes the importance of ongoing training to develop employees’ skills and knowledge. He suggests, “It is not enough to do your best; you must know what to do, and then do your best“. An example of instituting training on the job is when a sales organization provides regular sales techniques workshops and coaching sessions to enhance the skills of their sales team.

7. Institute leadership: Deming discusses the role of management in providing effective leadership. He states, “Leadership is not rank, privilege, titles, or money”. An example of instituting leadership is when a company encourages managers to empower their teams, provide guidance, and foster a supportive work environment to drive employee engagement and effective decision-making.

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Chapter 3: The Seven Deadly Diseases

This chapter identifies seven common diseases that hinder organizational performance: lack of constancy of purpose, management by numbers, excessive medical costs, running a company on visible figures alone, job hopping, management by fear, and excessive use of praise. Deming explores how these diseases affect organizations and provides strategies to alleviate them.

Out of Crisis Summary
Out of Crisis Summary

1. Lack of Constancy of Purpose:

Deming explains the importance of having a clear and consistent purpose for the organization. He states, “A company should know where it is going and what it wants to accomplish.” Without a defined purpose, organizations tend to lose focus and direction. Deming provides an example of a company that shifts its objectives frequently, causing confusion and disengagement among employees.

2. Management by Numbers:

This disease refers to the unhealthy reliance on numerical goals and targets as the sole measure of success. Deming warns, “Numerical goals, setting of quotas, and numerical standards lead to distortion and their misuse.” He highlights that focusing solely on numbers can lead to unethical behavior and neglect of the underlying processes. Deming emphasizes the need for a systems approach and statistical analysis to gain a better understanding of performance.

3. Excessive Medical Costs:

Deming uses the healthcare industry as an example to illustrate this disease. He points out that the excessive costs associated with healthcare arise from the lack of prevention and reliance on reactive treatments. Deming suggests a shift towards preventive measures and early intervention to reduce costs while improving patient outcomes.

4. Running a Company on Visible Figures Alone:

This disease focuses on the overreliance on easily observable or tangible data without considering the underlying causes. Deming states, “Management should know the limitations of data.” He explains that relying solely on visible figures may lead to ineffective decision-making and missed opportunities for process improvement. Deming encourages management to gather meaningful data and interpret it in the context of the system.

5. Job Hopping:

Deming highlights the negative impact of frequent employee turnover and the practice of job hopping. He states, “Stability of employment is an important deceiver of success.” When employees constantly change jobs, it disrupts the organization’s stability, reduces knowledge sharing, and hinders long-term improvement efforts. Deming suggests that organizations provide job security and opportunities for personal growth to retain talent.

6. Management by Fear:

This disease refers to the use of fear as a management tool, leading to a toxic work environment and decreased employee morale. Deming emphasizes the importance of nurturing trust and collaboration, stating, “Remove fear so that everyone may work effectively for the company.” Organizations that embrace open communication and create a culture of psychological safety tend to foster innovation and commitment.

7. Excessive Use of Praise:

Here, Deming highlights the detrimental effects of excessive praise without merit or proper evaluation. He warns, “Praise without documentation and merit leads to mediocrity.” When organizations excessively praise without ensuring quality and performance, it undermines the motivation to strive for excellence. Deming suggests recognizing and reinforcing true accomplishments to maintain high standards.

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Chapter 4: The Importance of Statistical Thinking

Deming emphasizes the need for managers to understand and apply statistical thinking in decision-making. He explains the concepts of variation and the role of statistics in understanding and improving processes. Deming argues that statistical thinking can help organizations make informed decisions and reduce waste.

Deming suggests that managers should have a profound understanding of statistics to effectively analyze data and make informed decisions. He states, “Whenever there is variation, there is the possibility of improvement“. By using statistical tools and techniques, managers can identify patterns and trends, analyze the root causes of variation, and implement appropriate actions for improvement.

The author highlights the concept of “common cause” and “special cause” variation. Common cause variation refers to the inherent randomness and variation that is present in any system. In contrast, special cause variation is caused by external factors or specific events that disrupt the normal functioning of a process. Deming emphasizes that managers should focus on reducing common cause variation as it directly contributes to process improvement.

To illustrate the importance of statistical thinking, Deming provides an example of a manufacturing process. He explains that by monitoring the variation in the dimensions of a product, managers can identify whether it is within an acceptable range or if there is a need for adjustment. This data-driven approach enables managers to make informed decisions about process adjustments and improvements.

Furthermore, Deming emphasizes the role of statistical thinking in quality control. He states, “Quality control requires measurement”. By collecting and analyzing data using statistical methods, managers can effectively monitor and control the quality of their products or services. This approach allows organizations to proactively identify and address potential quality issues before they result in customer dissatisfaction.

Deming acknowledges that statistical thinking might be new to many managers and employees. However, he emphasizes the need for organizations to invest in education and training in statistical methods to foster a statistical mindset at all levels. He states, “Learning statistical techniques is everyone’s responsibility“. By promoting statistical thinking and providing the necessary tools and knowledge, organizations can empower their employees to contribute to quality improvement initiatives.

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Chapter 5: The Psychology of Variation

In this chapter, Deming delves into the psychology behind variation and how it affects organizations. He explains that understanding and managing variation is crucial for improving quality and reducing defects. Deming encourages managers to focus on process improvement rather than blaming individuals for variation.

Deming begins by stating, “No one can inspect quality into a product or service; it must be built into it“. This quote encapsulates the core idea that simply inspecting for defects after the fact is not enough. Instead, organizations must focus on prevention and improving the processes that produce the product or service.

To illustrate the concept of variation, Deming provides the example of measuring the height of a child at different ages. He explains that the height will naturally vary from measurement to measurement. However, this variation is a common cause variation, which is inherent and expected in any process. It is vital to recognize this distinction to avoid overreacting to random fluctuations in data.

Deming also emphasizes the importance of understanding the difference between special cause variation and common cause variation. Special cause variation refers to variations caused by specific factors or events that can be identified and eliminated, while common cause variation is the inherent variation within a process. Deming warns against attributing common cause variation to individuals, as it is a systemic issue.

To further emphasize this point, Deming states, “Management’s job is to prepare the soil for the workers to be effective – to eliminate the causes of ordinary variation“. This implies that managers should focus on improving the system and removing barriers that hinder employees from delivering high-quality work consistently.

Deming also discusses the effects of tampering with a stable system. Tampering refers to reacting to common cause variation by making unnecessary changes that disrupt the stability of a process. He warns, “Tampering causes instability and increased variation, further affecting overall performance“. This insight emphasizes the importance of understanding and managing variation effectively.

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Chapter 6: The System of Profound Knowledge

Deming introduces his System of Profound Knowledge (SoPK), which encompasses four core areas: appreciation for a system, knowledge of variation, theory of knowledge, and psychology. He emphasizes the interconnectedness of these areas and how they contribute to effective management and problem-solving.

Deming starts by emphasizing the interconnectedness of the four areas. He states, “Appreciation for a system requires knowledge of variation and theory of knowledge. Knowledge of variation requires appreciation for a system and theory of knowledge. Theory of knowledge requires appreciation for a system and knowledge of variation“. This highlights the need to understand and apply all four areas to fully grasp the dynamics of an organization.

Appreciation for a system involves understanding the interdependencies and interactions within an organization. Deming explains, “A system is composed of many interdependent components. It is not enough to just address individual parts; it is crucial to understand how they work together as a whole“. He emphasizes that optimizing individual components without considering their impact on the entire system can lead to suboptimal results.

To illustrate the concept of appreciation for a system, Deming provides an example of a car with its many components such as the engine, transmission, and brakes. He explains that improving each component individually may not necessarily result in a better car. Instead, a systems approach considers how these components work together to create a reliable, safe, and high-performing vehicle.

Knowledge of variation is another crucial aspect of Deming’s system. He asserts, “Understanding variation is essential for effective management. Without understanding and addressing variation, it is impossible to improve quality and reduce defects”. Managers need to recognize that variation is inherent in any process and determine if it is due to common causes or special causes.

Deming provides an example of a production process to illustrate knowledge of variation. He explains that when the output of a process fluctuates within a predictable range, it is considered under statistical control. However, if the output falls outside this range, a special cause can be identified and addressed to eliminate the variation.

The theory of knowledge, according to Deming, involves understanding the limitations and fallibility of our knowledge. He states, “Knowledge is made up of assumptions, and these assumptions must be continually tested and reviewed. We need to be open to new information and willing to revise our beliefs when necessary“. This approach fosters a culture of learning and adaptability within an organization.

To exemplify the theory of knowledge, Deming shares a story of a doctor who confidently diagnosed a patient’s ailment but neglected to consider a rare condition that presented similar symptoms. The doctor’s failure to question his assumptions resulted in a misdiagnosis. Deming highlights the importance of continuously challenging our assumptions and seeking new knowledge to make better decisions.

Psychology is the final component of Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge. Deming believes that understanding human behavior and motivation is crucial for effective management. He asserts, “Motivated and engaged employees are the foundation of any successful organization. It is essential to create an environment where individuals can contribute and grow”.

Deming illustrates the significance of psychology with an example of a factory where employees were frequently blamed for defects in the production process. This blame culture created fear, mistrust, and low morale among the workers. Deming argues that by understanding the psychology of individuals and creating a supportive environment, organizations can foster collaboration, initiative, and job satisfaction.

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Chapter 7: How to Spread Quality Throughout the Organization

Deming provides strategies for implementing quality improvement throughout an organization. He discusses the importance of leadership and the role of management in creating a culture of continuous improvement. Deming stresses the need for employee involvement, training, and education to achieve overall quality.

Deming states, “There can be no true quality without the involvement of everyone in an organization“. He argues that quality is a shared responsibility and should not be limited to specific departments or individuals. To illustrate this, Deming shares the example of Ford Motor Company, where he conducted workshops to train all levels of employees in statistical quality control. He saw a significant improvement in quality and employee satisfaction as a result of their involvement.

The author emphasizes the need for management to provide the necessary resources and support for employees to enhance their skills and contribute to quality improvement. Deming states, “Management must provide leadership and resources, a work environment conducive to professional development, and opportunities for personal growth“. He emphasizes that effective management involves nurturing and empowering employees, enabling them to take ownership of quality improvement initiatives.

Deming also discusses the importance of education and training in building a culture of quality. He advocates for continuous learning and states, “The transformation towards quality is not an event; it is a way of life that demands lifelong learning”. To illustrate this point, Deming shares the case of a Japanese company that invested heavily in training its employees in statistical quality control. The company experienced significant growth and success as a result of this commitment to education and skill development.

The author further emphasizes the need for organizations to focus on intrinsic motivation rather than relying on incentives. Deming states, “Intrinsic motivation is far more powerful than external rewards and punishments“. He explains that employees who are motivated by the value they bring to their work and the satisfaction of contributing to quality improvement are more likely to be engaged and committed.

Deming stresses that quality improvement is a continuous process and requires ongoing effort from all levels of the organization. He states, “Quality cannot be viewed as an end goal but as a never-ending journey towards improvement“. He encourages organizations to embrace the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle as a means to continuously learn and refine their processes.

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Chapter 8: New Principles for Transformation

In this chapter, Deming explores new principles for transformation, building upon his 14 Points. He emphasizes the importance of quality over quantity, long-term thinking, and the understanding that cost is not the sole determinant of quality. Deming presents these principles as a guide for organizations to thrive in the face of change and uncertainty.

Deming states, “The great majority of our costs are hidden costs…it is management’s job to work continually on the system…to reduce costs through reducing waste“. He highlights the need for management to identify and eliminate waste in processes, rather than relying solely on cost-cutting measures. By improving the system, organizations can reduce costs in the long run and improve overall quality.

The author provides an example of a Japanese company that adopted this principle. He shares, “In the production of tape recorders, they found that they could improve quality and reduce costs…by abandoning the policy of accepting 100% of incoming components from suppliers without inspection”. This example illustrates how focusing on improving quality at every stage of the production process, including supplier inspection, can lead to cost reduction and improved overall quality.

Deming also emphasizes the importance of reducing variation in processes. He states, “Variation in quality cannot be measured directly by statistical theory. Rather, variation is a statement about a system”. By understanding and managing variation in processes, organizations can achieve greater consistency and quality in their products or services.

The author provides an example of a company that successfully reduced variation in product quality. He explains, “Through statistical control charts for quality…a company in the United States has shown…that control of variation always leads to favorable…results”. This example highlights how using statistical control charts and taking a systematic approach to reducing variation can lead to improved quality outcomes.

Another vital principle discussed in this chapter is the need for organizations to invest in research and development for long-term gain. Deming emphasizes that short-term gains should not come at the expense of long-term sustainability. He states, “Investment for research and development…is as necessary as investment for new machinery and buildings“. By investing in research and development, organizations can drive innovation and stay ahead of the competition.

The author provides an example of a company that successfully embraced this principle. He shares, “Researchers developed a process that made a new plant and a new product obsolete. The competitors, with their assets tied up in new plants, could not compete”. This example exemplifies how investing in research and development can lead to breakthrough innovations that give organizations a competitive edge in the market.

Deming concludes the chapter by emphasizing the importance of leadership in implementing these new principles. He states, “Leadership…is critically important. It is up to management to put in place the means for accomplishing the transformation”. Effective leadership is crucial for creating a culture of quality and continuous improvement within an organization.

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Chapter 9: The Six Deadly Diseases

Continuing from Chapter 3, Deming discusses six additional diseases that plague organizations: lack of understanding the interdependence of systems, use of targets and quotas, elimination of slogans, homogenization of people, ignoring long-term research for short-term gain, and lack of leadership. Deming offers insights on how to address these diseases in order to create a healthier organization.

The first disease Deming addresses is the lack of understanding the interdependence of systems. Deming explains, “A system is a network of interdependent components that work together to achieve a goal.” He emphasizes the need for managers to grasp the interconnectedness of processes and departments within an organization, rather than viewing them in isolation. Deming argues that a failure to understand this interdependence leads to inefficiencies, duplicated efforts, and ultimately, a decline in quality.

To illustrate this disease, Deming provides an example of a company where different departments, such as production, marketing, and customer service, operate independently without effective communication or coordination. As a result, the marketing team may make promises to customers that the production team cannot fulfill, leading to customer dissatisfaction and a negative impact on the overall reputation of the organization.

The second disease highlighted by Deming is the use of targets and quotas as a means of management control. Deming cautions against setting arbitrary targets and quotas, which often result in suboptimal decision-making and unethical practices. He states, “Targets and quotas limit creativity, discourage personal growth, and lead to short-term thinking.

To illustrate this disease, Deming cites the example of sales targets in the pharmaceutical industry. When sales representatives are driven solely by meeting sales quotas, they may engage in unethical behavior, such as promoting unnecessary or inappropriate medications to doctors. This focus on short-term revenue generation can harm patient well-being and damage the long-term reputation of the pharmaceutical company.

The third disease that Deming addresses is the elimination of slogans without understanding their meaning. He argues that slogans without substance are empty and fail to motivate employees to strive for quality improvement. Deming writes, “The elimination of meaningless slogans and arbitrary targets is essential to focus on real improvement and employee engagement.

To exemplify this disease, Deming brings attention to an organization that uses slogans such as “Quality is our top priority” without aligning their actions and processes accordingly. If the organization does not invest in training, process improvement, and employee involvement, these slogans will be seen as mere lip service, creating cynicism and disengagement among employees.

The fourth disease identified by Deming is the homogenization of people. He warns against treating individuals as a mass, disregarding their unique strengths, skills, and experiences. Deming emphasizes, “Every employee is different and can contribute in their own way. Homogenization stifles creativity and inhibits problem-solving.”

To illustrate this disease, Deming describes a situation where managers fail to recognize and leverage the diverse talents and perspectives of their employees. By treating all employees as interchangeable resources, management misses out on the potential for innovative ideas and solutions that could enhance organizational performance.

The fifth disease Deming discusses is the preference for short-term gains over long-term research. He criticizes organizations that prioritize immediate returns at the expense of investing in research and development, which is crucial for long-term success. Deming explains, “The absence of long-term research leads to a lack of innovation, stagnation, and vulnerability to competition.

To provide an example of this disease, Deming mentions a company that cuts its research and development budget to maximize short-term profits. While this decision may yield immediate gains, it hampers the organization’s ability to adapt to changing market demands, stifles innovation, and ultimately puts the company at a disadvantage compared to competitors who prioritize long-term research.

The final disease Deming addresses is the lack of leadership. He argues that without effective leaders who understand the principles of quality management, an organization is bound to struggle. Deming states, “Leadership is not a position; it is a mindset. Effective leaders inspire, provide guidance, and create an environment that fosters employee commitment and growth.

Deming provides an example of an organization with weak leadership where managers do not provide clear direction, fail to communicate effectively, or do not support employees’ professional and personal development. The result is a lack of motivation among employees and a decline in overall organizational performance.

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Chapter 10: Problems of Growth

Deming addresses the challenges that organizations face when experiencing rapid growth. He highlights the importance of maintaining constancy of purpose, adapting systems accordingly, and nurturing employees through growth. Deming suggests that managing growth effectively contributes to long-term success and stability.

Deming starts by highlighting that rapid growth often leads to a myriad of problems, including increased complexity, communication breakdowns, and a loss of focus on quality. He asserts, “Growth never makes a company better. It only magnifies what was there before in terms of good and bad management“.

To address these challenges, Deming suggests that organizations must maintain constancy of purpose amid growth. He explains, “Without constancy of purpose, the company does not have any structure. It is just a random collection of people, each without a common aim or purpose“. Deming emphasizes the need for strong leadership to ensure everyone is aligned and working toward shared goals.

Deming emphasizes the importance of adapting systems to support growth. He says, “When a company grows, it has to be organized in a different way, or it will fail”. He provides an example of a manufacturing company that expanded rapidly without adjusting their production processes. The result was an increase in defects, customer complaints, and ultimately, a decline in the company’s reputation. Deming emphasizes the need for processes and systems that can handle the increased demands of growth.

Furthermore, Deming highlights the importance of nurturing employees during periods of growth. He explains, “The key is in the people. If you treat people well and keep them informed about the company and where it’s going, they will rise to the occasion”. Deming believes that investing in employee education and development is essential for organizational success during times of growth.

To illustrate the impact of growth on organizations, Deming tells the story of a research and development company that experienced rapid expansion. As the company grew, the leaders became more focused on financial targets and neglected long-term research. This led to a decline in innovation and a loss of competitive advantage. Deming emphasizes the need for a balance between short-term gain and long-term research.

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Chapter 11: The Future

In the final chapter, Deming discusses the future of organizations and the role of management. He encourages organizations to embrace continuous improvement, innovation, and learning. Deming acknowledges that the future is uncertain but emphasizes the importance of adopting a proactive mindset to navigate through change.

Deming begins by acknowledging the uncertainty of the future, stating, “No one can predict the outcome of any change. … We can only try to shape our future, while we adapt to it”. He highlights the need for organizations to anticipate and adapt to changes in the environment, industry, and customer expectations.

One key aspect Deming emphasizes for the future is the importance of continuous improvement. He writes, “We are here to make another world, to live in a new way, to change that way of thinking that has been undermining us, to make the future better“. Deming encourages organizations to focus on improving processes, reducing waste, and enhancing quality to stay competitive and meet customer needs.

Regarding innovation, Deming suggests that organizations should strive to create new products, services, and processes. He asserts, “Anxiety is the predecessor of innovation, not necessity. Innovation comes from the producer; it is one of the endless responses to opportunities perceived by the mind of the producer, the mind of the businessman“. Deming believes that innovation is driven by the desire to excel and seize opportunities rather than simply responding to market demands.

To illustrate the importance of continuous improvement and innovation, Deming provides examples of Japanese companies that have successfully taken on these principles. He highlights Toyota’s continuous improvement efforts through their “kaizen” philosophy, emphasizing the company’s commitment to always find better ways to do things. Deming also mentions Sony’s innovative approach to product development, which has enabled them to create groundbreaking technologies and stay ahead of the competition.

Deming further discusses the role of management in shaping the future of organizations. He notes, “Management’s job is to optimize a system, … management must aim to improve the performance and the competitive position of the company“. Deming emphasizes the need for managers to understand the system in which they operate and take a proactive approach to problem-solving and decision-making.

To exemplify the importance of proactive management, Deming shares the story of an American manufacturing company that failed to adapt to changing market conditions and ultimately went out of business. He explains how the company’s management failed to anticipate customer needs, invest in new technologies, and prioritize quality improvement.

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Out of Crisis” by W. Edwards Deming provides a comprehensive and insightful guide to transforming organizational management. Deming’s principles and concepts focus on shifting towards a culture of quality and continuous improvement. By understanding and addressing the root causes of organizational problems, organizations can navigate the crisis and build a foundation for long-term success. Deming’s ideas continue to be relevant and influential in the field of management