Modern Management: In today’s rapidly changing business landscape, effective management skills are more crucial than ever. Whether you’re an experienced manager or aspiring to be one, “Modern Management” by Samir Parikh is the ultimate guide to navigating the complexities of the modern workplace. This exceptional book offers a comprehensive overview of management principles, theories, and practices, providing readers with the knowledge and tools they need to succeed.
Author Samir Parikh, a renowned expert in the field of management, takes readers on a journey through the evolution of management theories, from the classical approaches to the more contemporary perspectives. Parikh emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary understanding of management, incorporating aspects of psychology, sociology, and economics. By providing a historical context, Parikh helps readers grasp the foundations of modern management and its relevance in today’s dynamic business environment.
What sets “Modern Management” apart is its practical approach to management. Parikh offers real-life examples and scenarios, allowing readers to apply the concepts and theories in a tangible way. From decision-making and problem-solving to leadership and motivation, Parikh covers a wide range of topics that are essential for effective management. Furthermore, he addresses crucial aspects such as communication, conflict management, and organizational culture, recognizing their significance in building successful teams and fostering a positive work environment.
In a world where adaptability and innovation are key to survival, “Modern Management” equips readers with the tools to thrive in the business world. With its authoritative and data-oriented approach, combined with Parikh’s engaging writing style, this book is a must-read for anyone seeking to enhance their management skills and stay ahead in today’s competitive landscape.
Modern Management: Chapter Wise Summary
Chapter 1: Introduction to Modern Management
In the first chapter of “Modern Management,” author Samir Parikh provides an overview of the book and its purpose. He emphasizes the need for a modern approach to management in today’s fast-paced and ever-changing business environment. Parikh introduces the concept of management as a multidisciplinary field that incorporates various theories, principles, and practices.
Parikh begins by stating, “The world of management is evolving rapidly, calling for a fresh perspective on how organizations are led and managed“. He acknowledges that the dynamics of the business landscape have changed drastically in recent years, with advancements in technology, globalization, and shifting customer expectations. Parikh contends that managers must adapt to these changes and adopt a more agile and innovative mindset.
To illustrate the need for modern management, Parikh provides an example of how companies like Blockbuster and Kodak failed to adapt to the changing market, ultimately leading to their downfall. He states, “These companies were unable to embrace change and failed to recognize the importance of staying relevant in an increasingly digital age“. This example serves as a cautionary tale, highlighting the consequences of clinging to outdated management practices.
Parikh argues that a modern approach to management requires a multidisciplinary perspective. He asserts, “Management is not a standalone field but rather draws from various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and economics“. By integrating knowledge from different disciplines, managers can gain a deeper understanding of human behavior, organizational dynamics, and economic factors, enabling them to make informed decisions.
Furthermore, Parikh emphasizes the importance of embracing diversity and inclusion in modern management. He states, “Modern management practices recognize the value of diversity and promote inclusive leadership, creating an environment that fosters innovation and creativity“. Parikh highlights the benefits of diverse perspectives in problem-solving and decision-making, underscoring the need for managers to create an inclusive culture that values and respects differences.
Chapter 2: Evolution of Management Theories
Parikh delves into the evolution of management theories in the second chapter. He discusses the classical management theories, including scientific management and administrative management, and their impact on the field of management. Parikh then explores the emergence of behavioral management theories and their focus on human interactions within organizations. He emphasizes the importance of understanding the historical development of management theories to effectively apply them in modern-day management practices.
Parikh begins by discussing the classical management theories, which emerged in the early 20th century. He quotes Frederick Taylor, the father of scientific management, who famously stated, “In the past, the man has been first; in the future, the system must be first.” Parikh explains that scientific management focused on improving efficiency and productivity through the scientific study of work processes. He provides an example of Henry Ford’s assembly line, where Taylor’s principles were applied to streamline production processes and increase output.
Moving on to administrative management theories, Parikh quotes Henri Fayol, who defined the functions of management as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Parikh explains how administrative management emphasized the need for a clear hierarchy, division of labor, and standardized processes within organizations. He gives the example of McDonald’s, where Fayol’s principles of organizing and coordination are evident in the standardized procedures followed at all their restaurants.
Parikh then transitions to the behavioral management theories that emerged as a response to the limitations of the classical theories. He quotes Mary Parker Follett, who stated, “Leadership is not defined by the exercise of power, but by the capacity to increase the sense of power among those led.” Parikh explains how behavioral management shifted the focus from task efficiency to human interactions within organizations. He provides an example of Google’s approach to management, where creating a positive work culture and empowering employees is considered crucial for innovation and success.
Further delving into the evolution of management theories, Parikh discusses the contingency theories that emerged in the later part of the 20th century. He quotes Peter Drucker, who famously said, “The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn’t said.” Parikh explains that contingency theories recognize the complexity and uniqueness of organizations, suggesting that management practices should be flexible and adaptable to specific circumstances. He gives the example of Apple, where Steve Jobs’ leadership style was tailored to the company’s innovative and creative culture.
Parikh concludes the chapter by emphasizing the importance of understanding the historical development of management theories. He states, “By studying the evolution of management theories, managers can gain valuable insights into the foundations of modern management practices.” He highlights that while the theories have evolved, their underlying principles and concepts still hold relevance in today’s dynamic business environment.
Chapter 3: Functions of Management
In this chapter, Parikh explores the four functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. He provides practical examples and real-life scenarios to illustrate how these functions are applied in organizations. Parikh emphasizes the interdependence of these functions and the need for managers to effectively balance and integrate them to achieve organizational goals.
Parikh begins by emphasizing the interconnected nature of the four functions of management. He quotes Peter Drucker, a renowned management consultant, who stated, “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” This quote highlights the importance of managers effectively balancing and integrating the functions to achieve organizational goals.
The author then delves into the first function of management: planning. Parikh quotes Henry Mintzberg, a management expert, who said, “Planning is about managing change.” He explains how planning involves setting goals, developing strategies, and creating action plans to guide organizational activities. Parikh provides an example of a marketing manager who develops a comprehensive marketing plan to launch a new product. This example illustrates the importance of planning in ensuring that resources are allocated effectively and goals are achieved.
Moving on to the second function, organizing, Parikh quotes Mary Parker Follett, a pioneer in management theory, who stated, “Organizing is not about structure but about relationships.” He explains that organizing involves structuring tasks, allocating resources, and establishing authority to facilitate coordination and collaboration within the organization. Parikh provides an example of a project manager who organizes a cross-functional team to work on a complex project. This example highlights the importance of organizing in creating a framework for effective teamwork and achieving project objectives.
Next, Parikh explores the function of leading. He quotes John C. Maxwell, a leadership expert, who said, “Leadership is not about being in charge. It is about taking care of those in your charge.” He explains that leading involves inspiring and influencing others to achieve organizational goals. Parikh provides an example of a team leader who motivates and guides team members to meet sales targets. This example demonstrates the role of leadership in fostering employee engagement and driving performance.
Lastly, Parikh discusses the function of controlling. He quotes W. Edwards Deming, a quality management guru, who stated, “In God we trust; all others must bring data.” This quote emphasizes the importance of using data and metrics to monitor performance and ensure that goals are being met. Parikh provides an example of a manufacturing supervisor who uses quality control measures to ensure that products meet customer specifications. This example highlights the significance of controlling in maintaining quality standards and identifying areas for improvement.
Chapter 4: Decision Making and Problem Solving
Parikh addresses the crucial aspect of decision-making and problem-solving in management in this chapter. He highlights the importance of gathering relevant information, analyzing alternatives, and considering potential risks and benefits. Parikh also introduces various decision-making models and techniques that managers can use to make informed and effective decisions. He emphasizes the need for managers to be adaptable and open to change when facing complex problems.
Parikh begins by stating, “Effective decision-making is a fundamental skill for managers, as it directly impacts the success of an organization.” He highlights the importance of gathering relevant information and analyzing alternatives before making a decision. Parikh introduces the concept of bounded rationality, stating, “Managers often face time and resource constraints, which limit their ability to make completely rational decisions. Instead, they rely on heuristics and rules of thumb to simplify the decision-making process.”
To exemplify the decision-making process, Parikh presents a case study of a manufacturing company facing a significant production issue. He quotes a senior manager from the company, who states, “We had to decide whether to invest in new machinery or modify the existing equipment to address the production problem. We analyzed the costs, benefits, and potential risks associated with both options before making a decision.”
Parikh also introduces various decision-making models, such as the rational decision-making model and the incremental decision-making model. He quotes renowned management scholar Herbert Simon, who said, “Managers often make satisficing decisions, where they choose the first satisfactory solution that meets their criteria, rather than seeking the optimal solution.”
To illustrate the use of decision-making models, Parikh provides an example of a manager using the rational decision-making model to select a new supplier. He quotes the manager, who explains, “I gathered information about various suppliers, evaluated their capabilities, and made a decision based on objective criteria, such as cost, quality, and delivery time.”
Furthermore, Parikh discusses the importance of considering potential risks and benefits when making decisions. He quotes management expert Peter Drucker, who said, “The best way to predict the future is to create it.” Parikh emphasizes the need for managers to anticipate potential risks and uncertainties in decision-making and develop contingency plans to mitigate them.
To demonstrate the significance of risk analysis, Parikh mentions a real-life example of a multinational corporation entering a new market. He quotes the CEO, who states, “We conducted a thorough risk analysis, considering political stability, market competition, and regulatory frameworks before making the decision to expand into the new market.”
Chapter 5: Leadership and Motivation
In the fifth chapter, Parikh delves into the concepts of leadership and motivation. He explores different leadership styles, including autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire, and their impact on employee motivation and performance. Parikh also discusses various motivation theories, such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and their implications for managers. He stresses the importance of effective leadership and motivation in driving employee engagement and productivity.
Parikh begins the chapter by stating, “Leadership is not about being in charge. It is about taking care of those in your charge.” This quote sets the tone for the chapter and highlights the shift from traditional authoritative leadership towards more collaborative and employee-centric approaches.
One leadership style discussed by Parikh is the autocratic style, in which decisions are made solely by the leader without input from subordinates. Parikh explains that while this style may be effective in certain situations that require quick decision-making and clear direction, it can also lead to low employee morale and lack of creative input. He presents an example of a company that experienced high turnover rates and decreased productivity due to an autocratic leadership style that stifled employee empowerment.
On the other hand, Parikh introduces the democratic leadership style, which involves involving employees in the decision-making process and valuing their input. This style fosters a sense of ownership and accountability among employees, leading to increased motivation and engagement. Parikh cites a study that found organizations with democratic leaders had higher levels of employee satisfaction and reduced turnover rates.
Parikh also explores the laissez-faire leadership style, where leaders provide minimal guidance and allow employees to take the lead. While this style can be effective in creative and self-driven environments, Parikh cautions that it can lead to a lack of direction and coordination if not managed properly. He provides an example of a software development team that struggled with deadlines and deliverables due to a lack of guidance from their laissez-faire leader.
Motivation is another key aspect of effective leadership, and Parikh delves into various motivation theories in this chapter. He discusses Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which suggests that individuals are motivated by different needs at different levels, such as physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. Parikh emphasizes that managers should understand these needs and provide opportunities for employees to fulfill them in order to enhance motivation and job satisfaction.
Parikh also introduces Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which distinguishes between hygiene factors and motivators. Hygiene factors, such as salary and working conditions, are necessary to prevent dissatisfaction among employees, but they do not necessarily lead to motivation. On the other hand, motivators, such as challenging work and recognition, can drive employee satisfaction and performance. Parikh emphasizes that managers should focus on providing both hygiene factors and motivators to create a motivating work environment.
To illustrate the importance of leadership and motivation, Parikh shares an example of a manufacturing company that implemented a transformational leadership approach, where leaders inspire and motivate employees to achieve higher levels of performance. Through inspirational communication, tailored training programs, and recognizing employee achievements, the company experienced a significant increase in productivity and employee satisfaction.
Chapter 6: Communication and Conflict Management
Parikh emphasizes the significance of effective communication and conflict management in organizations in this chapter. He discusses the different types of communication, both formal and informal, and the barriers that can hinder effective communication. Parikh also provides strategies for conflict resolution and management, emphasizing the importance of open dialogue and collaboration. He highlights the role of managers in facilitating effective communication and resolving conflicts among team members.
Parikh begins by discussing the different types of communication that occur in organizations, including formal and informal channels. He notes, “Formal communication channels are established by the organization and follow predefined routes“. These channels include official meetings, memos, and emails. On the other hand, informal communication occurs through casual conversations, social gatherings, and even online platforms like chat rooms and social media.
To illustrate the significance of effective communication, Parikh provides an example of a miscommunication issue that impacts collaboration within a team. He explains, “In a software development team, the lack of clear communication between the designers and developers can result in delays and errors in the final product“. This example highlights how ineffective communication can hinder productivity and lead to costly mistakes.
Parikh then explores the barriers to effective communication, such as language barriers, cultural differences, and technological challenges. He states, “Language barriers can cause misunderstandings, misinterpretations, and confusion among team members“. This barrier can create significant challenges, especially in global organizations where employees come from diverse cultural backgrounds.
Furthermore, Parikh emphasizes the importance of active listening in effective communication. He quotes Peter Drucker, a management consultant, saying, “The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn’t said“. This quote highlights the need for managers to pay attention not only to verbal cues but also to non-verbal cues, such as body language and facial expressions, to truly understand the message being conveyed.
Moving on to conflict management, Parikh explains the different types of conflicts that can arise within teams, including task-related conflicts, interpersonal conflicts, and role conflicts. He provides an example of a task-related conflict, stating, “A disagreement between two team members about the best approach to complete a project task can lead to tension and hinder progress“. This example illustrates how conflicts can arise when individuals have differing opinions or approaches to completing a task.
Parikh then introduces strategies for managing conflicts, including negotiation, collaboration, and compromise. He emphasizes the importance of open dialogue and active listening in resolving conflicts. Parikh quotes American businesswoman Mary Kay Ash, who said, “Listen first, then give your solution“. This quote highlights the significance of understanding all perspectives involved in a conflict before proposing a solution.
Furthermore, Parikh addresses the role of managers in mediating conflicts and fostering a positive work environment. He explains, “Managers should act as facilitators, encouraging open communication, and guiding team members towards resolution“. This emphasizes the need for managers to create a safe space for open dialogue and actively intervene to resolve conflicts when necessary.
Chapter 7: Organizational Culture and Change Management
In the final chapter, Parikh explores the concepts of organizational culture and change management. He discusses the elements that shape organizational culture, including values, beliefs, and norms. Parikh also addresses the challenges associated with managing change in organizations and provides strategies for effectively implementing and managing change initiatives. He emphasizes the need for managers to create a supportive and adaptive organizational culture to successfully navigate change.
Parikh begins by defining organizational culture as “the shared values, beliefs, assumptions, and norms that guide the behavior of individuals within an organization“. He explains that organizational culture plays a crucial role in influencing employee behavior, decision-making processes, and overall organizational performance.
To illustrate the importance of organizational culture, Parikh provides the example of Zappos, an online shoe and clothing retailer. Zappos has built a strong culture centered around its core values, including delivering “WOW” through exceptional customer service. Parikh emphasizes that by fostering a positive and customer-centric culture, Zappos has been able to differentiate itself in the highly competitive retail industry and achieve remarkable success.
Parikh also delves into the challenges associated with managing change within an organization. He emphasizes that change is inevitable in today’s fast-paced business environment and that effective change management is crucial for organizational success. Parikh cites the example of Nokia, once a dominant player in the mobile phone industry, but failed to adapt to the changing market trends and lost its position to competitors like Apple and Samsung.
To successfully manage change, Parikh suggests creating a supportive and adaptive organizational culture. He explains that a culture that encourages innovation, learning, and openness to change is essential for navigating the challenges brought about by change. Parikh quotes Peter Drucker, stating, “Culture eats strategy for breakfast“, underscoring the importance of culture in driving organizational outcomes.
Parikh also provides practical strategies for managing change effectively. He emphasizes the importance of clear communication, involving employees in the change process, and providing adequate support and resources during the transition. Parikh advocates for creating a change management team that can guide the organization through the change process, ensuring that all stakeholders are well-informed and engaged.
To support his recommendations, Parikh shares the example of GE’s transformation under Jack Welch. Welch implemented a comprehensive change management strategy, which involved clear communication, employee involvement, and continuous learning and development. This approach allowed GE to successfully navigate significant changes and become an industry leader.
In “Modern Management,” Samir Parikh provides a comprehensive overview of the field of management and its modern-day practices. Through a combination of theory, real-life examples, and practical insights, Parikh equips managers with the knowledge and skills needed to excel in their roles. Whether you are a seasoned manager or aspiring to be one, this book is a valuable resource for understanding and applying modern management principles
Samrat is a Delhi-based MBA from the Indian Institute of Management. He is a Strategy, AI, and Marketing Enthusiast and passionately writes about core and emerging topics in Management studies. Reach out to his LinkedIn for a discussion or follow his Quora Page