Kemp’s Design Model is a widely-used instructional design framework that has evolved over the years to meet the changing needs of learners and organizations. In this article, we will discuss the history of Kemp’s Design Model and take a detailed look at each step, including techniques that can be used to enhance learning and development within an organization. This is a part of our extensive coverage of 13 Learning and Development Models. So, if you are an instructional Designer or an L&D Manager, the article is a must-read for you.
History of Kemp’s Design Model
Kemp’s Design Model was first introduced by Jerrold Kemp in 1977 as a framework for designing instructional materials. The model was originally based on an analysis of instructional design methods used in the military and was later adapted for use in corporate and academic settings. The model has undergone several revisions over the years, with the latest version being the Kemp Instructional Design Model.
The Kemp Instructional Design Model comprises nine steps that provide a structured approach to designing effective instructional materials. The model is learner-centered and emphasizes the importance of addressing the needs of the learners at every stage of the design process. The following sections provide an in-depth look at each of the nine steps in the Kemp Instructional Design Model.
Kemp’s Design Model Explained in Detail
Step 1: Determine the Specific Goals and Instructional Issues:
The first step in Kemp’s Instructional Design Model is to determine the specific goals and instructional issues. This involves identifying the learning objectives and determining what knowledge, skills, and attitudes the learners need to acquire. This step also involves identifying any constraints, such as time or budget limitations, that may impact the design process.
Techniques for Step 1:
- Conduct a needs assessment to identify the performance gap and determine the root cause of the problem.
- Use surveys, focus groups, or interviews to gather information about the learners’ needs and expectations.
- Use job analysis to identify the skills and knowledge required for the job and the tasks that need to be performed.
Step 2: Identify the Characteristics and Needs of the Learners
The second step in Kemp’s Design Model is to identify the characteristics and needs of the learners. This involves analyzing the learners’ demographics, previous experience, learning styles, and motivation levels. This step helps ensure that the instructional materials are designed to meet the specific needs of the learners.
Techniques for Step 2: Learning Style Assessment
- Use personality tests, learning style assessments, and other tools to understand the learners’ characteristics and preferences.
- Conduct a review of the learners’ previous educational and work experience.
- Use surveys or interviews to understand the learners’ motivation levels and learning preferences.
Step 3: Clarify the Course Content and Analyze the Proposed Task Components
The third step in Kemp’s Design Model is to clarify the course content and analyze the proposed task components in relation to the set goals. This step involves identifying the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that need to be addressed and developing a clear understanding of the content that needs to be covered.
Techniques for Step 3:
- Use content analysis to identify the key concepts and topics that need to be covered.
- Develop a concept map or a flowchart to help visualize the relationships between different components of the content.
- Identify the prerequisite knowledge and skills that learners need to have to understand the content.
Step 4: Define the Instructional Objectives and Learning Outcomes
The fourth step in Kemp’s Design Model is to define the instructional objectives and learning outcomes. This involves developing clear and measurable learning objectives that are aligned with the goals and content identified in the previous steps.
Techniques for Step 4:
- Use Bloom’s Taxonomy to develop learning objectives that address different levels of cognitive complexity.
- Develop performance-based objectives that describe what learners will be able to do after completing the instruction.
- Develop clear and measurable criteria for assessing learners’ performance.
Step 5: Ensure the Content is Sequentially and Logically Presented
The fifth step in the Kemp Instructional Design Model is to ensure that the content is sequentially and logically presented. This involves organizing the content in a way that makes sense to the learners and helps them build upon their existing knowledge.
Techniques for Step 5:
- Use a concept map or a flowchart to visualize the relationships between different components of the content.
- Use a storyboard to plan the sequence of the content.
- Use instructional strategies such as scaffolding or chunking to help learners process the information more effectively.
Step 6: Design Instructional Strategies to Enable Learners to Master the Content
The sixth step in Kemp’s Design Model is to design instructional strategies that enable learners to master the content. This involves selecting appropriate instructional methods, media, and materials that are aligned with the learning objectives and cater to the learners’ needs and preferences.
Techniques for Step 6:
- Use a variety of instructional methods such as lectures, discussions, and activities to engage learners.
- Use multimedia such as videos, animations, and interactive simulations to enhance learning.
- Develop job aids or other support materials to help learners apply the knowledge and skills in real-life situations.
Step 7: Plan the Instructional Message and the Appropriate Mode of Delivery
The seventh step in Kemp’s Design Model is to plan the instructional message and the appropriate mode of delivery. This involves developing the content in a way that is clear, concise, and easily understandable to the learners.
Techniques for Step 7:
- Use a clear and concise writing style that is easy to understand.
- Use active voice and avoid technical jargon.
- Select the appropriate mode of delivery such as face-to-face, online, or blended learning, based on the learners’ needs and preferences.
Step 8: Develop Evaluation Instruments Suitable for Measuring and Assessing Learners’ Progress
The eighth step in the Kemp Instructional Design Model is to develop evaluation instruments suitable for measuring and assessing learners’ progress. This involves developing assessment methods that are aligned with the learning objectives and providing feedback on the learners’ performance.
Techniques for Step 8:
- Use formative assessments such as quizzes, tests, or assignments to provide feedback on the learners’ performance during the instruction.
- Use summative assessments such as final exams or projects to measure the learners’ achievement of the learning objectives.
- Use rubrics or other criteria to provide clear and specific feedback on the learners’ performance.
Step 9: Choose Appropriate Resources That Will Support the Teaching and Learning Activities
The final step in Kemp’s Design Model is to choose appropriate resources that will support the teaching and learning activities. This involves selecting the appropriate resources such as textbooks, videos, or online materials that are aligned with the learning objectives and cater to the learners’ needs and preferences.
Techniques for Step 9:
- Use a variety of resources such as textbooks, videos, or online materials to cater to the learners’ diverse needs and preferences.
- Ensure that the resources are aligned with the learning objectives and provide relevant and up-to-date information.
- Use open educational resources or other free resources to reduce costs and increase accessibility.
Kemp’s Design Model: Pros and Cons
One of the strengths of the Kemp Instructional Design Model is its focus on the learners’ needs and preferences. By identifying the learners’ characteristics and needs, instructional designers can create materials that are tailored to the learners’ specific context, which can enhance the learners’ engagement and motivation. Additionally, the model emphasizes the importance of designing instructional strategies that enable learners to master the content, which can lead to more effective and efficient learning outcomes.
Another strength of Kemp’s Design Model is its emphasis on evaluation. By developing evaluation instruments that measure and assess learners’ progress, instructional designers can obtain valuable feedback on the effectiveness of the instructional materials and make necessary adjustments to improve them. This focus on evaluation aligns with the broader trend in the field of instructional design toward evidence-based practice.
One potential limitation of Kemp’s Design Model is that it may not be the most appropriate approach for all types of instructional design projects. Kemp’s Design model is most effective when designing materials for well-defined learning objectives and relatively straightforward tasks. However, if the instructional design project is more complex or involves more ambiguous learning objectives, a more flexible and adaptive approach may be more appropriate.
Another limitation of Kemp’s Design Model is that it can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. The model emphasizes the importance of thoroughly analyzing the learners’ needs and characteristics, developing evaluation instruments, and designing instructional strategies. While this attention to detail can lead to more effective learning outcomes, it also requires significant time and effort on the part of instructional designers.
Additionally, some critics have argued that Kemp’s Design Model may be overly prescriptive and rigid. The model outlines a specific set of steps and techniques to follow, which may not always align with the unique context or needs of a particular instructional design project. In some cases, instructional designers may need to deviate from the model in order to create materials that are more tailored to the learners’ needs and preferences.
Despite these potential drawbacks, the Kemp Instructional Design Model remains a valuable tool for instructional designers to create effective and engaging instructional materials. By understanding the potential limitations of Kemp’s Design model and adapting it to fit the unique context and needs of each instructional design project, designers can leverage the strengths of the model to create materials that lead to successful learning outcomes.
Who were the other contributors to the kemps model?
While David Kemp is credited as the primary developer of the Kemp Instructional Design Model, he did not work alone in creating it. Several other individuals have contributed to the development and refinement of the model over the years.
One notable contributor to Kemp’s Design Model is Jack E. Phillips, a professor at the Institute for Simulation and Training at the University of Central Florida. Phillips expanded on Kemp’s original model by adding a step focused on identifying the costs associated with developing and implementing the instructional materials. This edition highlights the importance of considering the financial aspects of instructional design and can help organizations make informed decisions about investing in training and development programs.
Another contributor to Kemp’s Design Model is Thomas Russell, a professor at North Carolina State University. Russell emphasized the importance of incorporating multimedia elements into instructional materials, such as graphics, audio, and video. This addition aligns with the broader trend in the field of instructional design towards incorporating multimedia and interactive elements into instructional materials to enhance learner engagement and motivation.
Additionally, Kemp’s Design Model has been influenced by the broader field of educational psychology, including the work of prominent theorists such as Benjamin Bloom and Robert Gagne. Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, which outlines a hierarchy of learning objectives ranging from lower-level knowledge acquisition to higher-level analysis and synthesis, has been incorporated into Kemp’s Design Model as a way of defining instructional objectives and learning outcomes. Gagne’s work on instructional events, which outlines a series of events that should occur in the instructional process to promote effective learning, has also influenced the Kemp Design Model’s emphasis on designing instructional strategies that enable learners to master the content.
Overall, the Kemp Instructional Design Model has benefited from the contributions of many individuals over the years, reflecting the dynamic nature of the field of instructional design and the ongoing efforts to improve the effectiveness of instructional materials.
In conclusion, Kemp’s Design Model provides a structured approach to designing effective instructional materials that cater to the learners’ needs and preferences. The model emphasizes the importance of addressing the specific goals and instructional issues, identifying the characteristics and needs of the learners, clarifying the course content and analyzing the proposed task components, defining the instructional objectives and learning outcomes, ensuring the content is sequentially and logically presented, designing instructional strategies to enable learners to master the content, planning the instructional message and the appropriate mode of delivery, developing evaluation instruments suitable for measuring and assessing learners’ progress, and choosing appropriate resources that will support the teaching and learning activities.
By following these steps and utilizing the various techniques, instructional designers can create effective and engaging instructional materials that lead to successful learning outcomes.
Samrat is a Delhi-based MBA from the Indian Institute of Management. He is a Strategy, AI, and Marketing Enthusiast and passionately writes about core and emerging topics in Management studies. Reach out to his LinkedIn for a discussion or follow his Quora Page