Job analysis in HRM: A Comprehensive Guide to 7 things you need to know


Job analysis is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the duties, responsibilities, and required skills of a particular job. The purpose of job analysis is to identify the key tasks that are essential to the performance of a specific role and to determine the best way to assess an individual’s ability to perform those tasks. Job analysis can be used to create or revise job descriptions and to develop selection criteria for hiring and promotion decisions.

Definition of Job analysis:

A job analysis is defined as the aggregation of all duties and responsibilities which are assigned to an individual. From a Human Resource Management Perspective, every role in the organization must have a job analysis done so that there is a proper quantification of the work performed. However, it is easier said than done as many jobs involving senior management and decision-making roles have substantial qualitative assessments attached to them.

Having said that, job analysis allows to quantitively and qualitatively define the roles and responsibilities. Job analysis is very important when an employee is being prospected for a new role as it defines a baseline document on which the future interviewing process can work.

According to Edwin Flippo :

“Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a  specific job”.

Importance and Purpose of Job analysis:

Job analysis is important because it can be used in many human resource management programs, and it allows for the following to be done.

Organizational structure and design

By creating a classification system, work becomes more efficient and effective. Structuring systems not only help job placement but helps minimize overlapping or redundant tasks.

Facilitates human resource planning

An essential element of effective human resource planning is job analysis. It provides useful information to forecast manpower needs in terms of knowledge and skills, and like any hazard analysis, it helps determine the quality of human resources required in an organization

Facilitates recruitment and selection

Proper job analysis creates a candidate pool for recruitment and selection. Similarly, the job is advertised to receptive candidates only. This streamlines the application process and ultimately the selection process.

Facilitates performance appraisal

Employees can be accurately evaluated for promotion and training by using job analysis. Job analysis helps to measure performance.

Facilitates placement

Job analysis is important because it ensures candidates are placed in the right jobs depending on their qualifications and experience.

Facilitates manpower training development programs

Job analysis can be used to learn what skills are necessary for a job. This information can then be used to create better recruitment processes as well as more training and development opportunities based on individual’s needs.

Labor relations

Job analysis is a useful tool for both management and unions in the collective bargaining process. It can also be used to resolve disputes and grievances related to work.

Statistically, there is information from analyzing jobs that can help build healthy relationships. Management and trade unions can use this information to reach collective agreements.

Facilitates job evaluation

Organizations can evaluate the worth of jobs and compensate accordingly through an understanding of a Job’s Worth. Through Job Analysis, job worth is discovered through Job Description or Job Specification.

Facilitates employee counseling

Job analysis provides information about the strengths and weaknesses of employees, which is useful for career guidance.

Facilitates scientific promotions and transfers

On the basis of your job data, you can find the best promotions and transfers.

Facilitates career planning

Job analysis can be done to thoroughly understand the requirements of available jobs and how jobs at succeeding levels relate to one another, which allows employees and employers to do career development.

Employee health and safely

Job analysis helps identify unhealthy and hazardous environmental and operational conditions in the workplace. The information enables management to take corrective measures so that there are fewer accidents and the employees are not harmed.

Facilitates redesigning of jobs

Job analysis gives detailed information about jobs, as well as improves the performance criteria of a job or makes changes to it that provide employees with more opportunities.

Acceptance of the job offer

The candidate can evaluate a job offer by learning more about the daily responsibilities and compensation. Job analysis gives them a clear understanding of what the job will be like and what to expect, whether they should take the offer or not.

Components of Job Analysis

There are two important components of Job analysis

  1. Job Description
  2. Job Specification

Job Description

A job description is a document that contains relevant information about the job and what is expected of a future employee. Information in a job description typically includes the title of the position; where the job will be located; who the person is reporting to; and a general idea of what they will be doing on a day-to-day basis.

A lot of descriptions also incorporate additional aspects such as working conditions, equipment needed, and hazardous tasks associated with the position.

Contents of a Job Description

Following are the important contents of a Job Description

  1. The integral duties and responsibilities to be performed in this occupation
  2. The nature of hierarchy and the authority
  3. Necessary education and professional qualifications required for the job
  4. Inter-relationships are required in the job for the role to be successful
  5. The provisions of physical and working conditions need to be met in order to do a job.
  6. The geographical location of the job and whether physical presence will be required for the job

Benefits of Job Description

  1. It helps supervisors assign work to subordinates and provide feedback on how the team is doing.
  2. Simplifies the recruitment and selection process
  3. It is essential for Performance Evaluation
  4. Reviews can help with deciding the rate of remuneration for a specific job.
  5. It also helps in chalking out training and development programs.
  6. Helps in sourcing the right candidate by providing relevant and must-meet information
  7. Helps in targetting and attracting the right candidate for the role
  8. When selected for that particular job opening, employees can be clear about what they are supposed to do and eliminates post selection hassles if there are no direct supervisors or if supervisors are located in remote locations
  9. Clarifies to some extent the organizational structure


Job specifications are statements that tell us what qualities a person must have in order to perform the job properly. Job specifications clarify the job description for both people looking to hire and those looking for jobs. They include things like education qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional, and technical skills required to do the work as well as responsibilities.

A job description includes a list of qualifications and responsibilities that an employee must have to successfully perform their job. Qualities should include intelligence, judgment, flexibility, and other qualities more specific to the job.

Contents of Job Specification

The Contents of the Job specification are as follows

  1. Job Title and Designation to be offered by the employer
  2. Minimum Sets of Qualifications required for the job
  3. The average experience required to execute the job, if the job isn’t an entry-level job
  4. Employment criteria in the job specification
  5. Any Special attributes required for the job
  6. Maturity of the role required and dependencies for performance if any

Benefits of a Job Description

  1.  It helps in giving justification for each job.
  2.  It also helps in performance management to identify the best talent
  3. Job spec shows applicants if they are eligible for the job posting they’re interested in.
  4. Find the right candidate to suit your requirements
  5. The behavioral skills required
  6. The applying candidates can be filtered so that the overall burden of interviewing is reduced significantly

Methods of Job Analysis

We wrote a comprehensive article on the various methods of Job analysis. Here is the link for your reference.

  • These are the various methods used in Job analysis
  • Observation Method
  • Interview Method
  • Job Psychographic Method
  • Threshold Traits Analysis
  • Ability Requirements Scales
  • Position Analysis Questionnaire
  • Critical Incident Technique
  • Task inventory
  • Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended (MOSAIC)
  • Functional Job Analysis
  • Common Metric Questionnaire

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