These are the most common 11 job Analysis Methods or Techniques that are employed by HRs around the world. We will discuss this in detail in the following section
- Observation Method
- Interview Method
- Job Psychographic Method
- Threshold Traits Analysis
- Ability Requirements Scales
- Position Analysis Questionnaire
- Critical Incident Technique
- Task inventory
- Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended (MOSAIC)
- Functional Job Analysis
- Common Metric Questionnaire
What is Job Analysis
If you are searching for job analysis techniques, you must already be aware of what Job Analysis is. We have put a very small introduction for your reference.
A job analysis is defined as the aggregation of all duties and responsibilities which are assigned to an individual. From a Human Resource Management Perspective, every role in the organization must have a job analysis done so that there is a proper quantification of the work performed.
However, it is easier said than done as many jobs involving senior management and decision-making roles have substantial qualitative assessments attached to them. Having said that, job analysis allows quantitively and qualitatively defining the roles and responsibilities. Job analysis is very important when an employee is being prospected for a new role as it defines a baseline document on which the future interviewing process can work.
Job Analysis Methods in Details
Job Analysis Method 1: Observation Method
One of the easiest and most effective ways to analyze a job is to do observation. Generally, a Talent Acquisition expert or a leader observes the roles and responsibilities of an incumbent and devises a job analysis for the role.
Job Analysis Method 2: Interview Method
One of the oldest and yet the most relevant methods. It results from a direct interview between an incumbent and their manager. There are many variations to the method. One of the most widely followed methods is the “peer group” interview method in which generally talent acquisition specialist interviews the peers and documents the nature of the job the position is expected to perform
Job analysis Method 3: Job Psychographic Method
Psychographic methods are widely used in Consumer research and recently found their usage in the domain of job and HR analysis. There are many elements to the same, in which a set of incumbents or a set of incumbents answers the questions on which a psychographic profile required for the role is derived. It helps in understanding the authority, power, the chain of command, creativity, and values required to perform the job. It also helps in the creation of secondary data for the job like stress generated, core knowledge, and people management skills required for the job.
Job analysis Method 4: Threshold Traits Analysis
Felix Lopez created the Threshold Traits Analysis System in 1970. The system is used to evaluate job analysis, which includes teaching and selection. The system examines 33 traits, of which 2 are ability and 31 is attitude. There are 6 characteristics that need to be taken into account when evaluating the trait, including Level, Practicality, Weight, Degree, and Availability.
Job analysis Method 5: Ability Requirements Scales
A job analysis method, the Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS), is meant to replace the older system of Abilities Required for a Successful Performance scale. F-JAS was built on “research and development” for decades and contains 52 cognitive, physical, psychomotor, and sensory abilities. A level of ability rating scale specifies a level at which the task can be completed. It has not been applied to a large number of jobs in the economy to produce an occupational database.
Job analysis Method 6: Position Analysis Questionnaire
The Position Analysis Questionnaire is an easy-to-use questionnaire with a comprehensive list of 195 job elements that measure the domain of human behavior involved in work activities. You can find PAQ data for many jobs and it has yielded reasonably good reliability estimates.
Job Analysis Method 7: Critical Incident Technique
The critical incident technique is a performance appraisal tool that evaluates the behavior of an employee. It evaluates how he would have performed in certain events on the job. The employer uses a set of procedures to collect data, including observing critical human behaviors, skills used and incidents that occurred.
The critical incident method is subjective, but it is helpful for understanding the attributes of a job. Involving someone in the workplace who observes what is happening during work and evaluates it offers a more accurate representation of the tasks required. With an understanding of mental abilities that are needed by the job incumbent, unique competencies become clearer.
Job Analysis Method 8: Task inventory
Task inventory is a job analysis approach. Hiring managers or human resource managers create an initial itemized list of all of the tasks, or specific activities, that make up the performance of a specific job at a particular organization. Human resource managers derive information through studies, surveys, interviews, and detailed observations then summarize it, along with a number of clarifying questions, in a questionnaire to be completed by people in or affected by the job role. This information is used to further develop and refine actual job descriptions and set hiring criteria for the job.
Job Analysis Method 9: Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended (MOSAIC)
It is a multipurpose survey-based method used for job analysis and is in use for over two decades. This survey-based method is used to develop and ascertain 200 relevant questions. This technique is widely used in Federal Position filling and also used widely for Leadership roles
Job Analysis Method 10: Functional Job Analysis
It is a qualitative method to ascertain the requirements of a specific job. The output often comprises a unique dataset that represents the behavior of the individual and his fitness for the job. There are 7 elements of the same.
- Data Interpretation
- Worker Instruction for physical jobs
- Reasoning and Logical Skills
- People Management
- Quantitative Skills and Number Crunching abilities
- Language skills
Job Analysis Method 11: Common Metric Questionaire
The Common Metric Questionnaire is a questionnaire with five sections that target both exempt and nonexempt jobs. The Background contains 41 general questions about such topics as travel, seasonality, and license requirements. The Decision-Making section has 80 items that ask about your relevant occupational knowledge paired with skill in the subject, language and sensory requirements, and managerial decision-making. The Physical and Mechanical Activities section contains 53 items relating to activities like physical activities, tools, machinery, and equipment. The Work Setting section asks 47 questions about job characteristics like environmental conditions, hours worked per day or week, etc.
Samrat is a Delhi-based MBA from the Indian Institute of Management. He is a Strategy, AI, and Marketing Enthusiast and passionately writes about core and emerging topics in Management studies. Reach out to his LinkedIn for a discussion or follow his Quora Page